Rooftop greenhouses: features and types
In the Russian market there are many options for greenhouses and greenhouses. But among them a special place is occupied by designs with an opening top. In order to correctly select and use such a system, you must first learn all the details about it.
Advantages and disadvantages
On how well chosen greenhouse, depends on getting a good harvest. Even the most experienced developers can make mistakes; besides, any kind of construction is suitable for solving various tasks differently. The gardener must choose a greenhouse of such a format that will satisfy his needs and create a minimum of additional problems. There is reason to believe that open-top greenhouses are one of the best solutions.
With the onset of winter, not everyone has the opportunity to keep order at the dacha. If heavy snow falls, it can destroy the greenhouse in a few hours. It is not always possible to restore it after a breakdown. It is much easier to change the structure or make it from scratch. Here are just extra efforts or significant investments will please few people.
And in the case when the greenhouse is made with a sliding or sliding roof, for it the snowfall is not so bad. Snow falls inside and does not press on the shell. In addition, in a conventional greenhouse that does not let the snow in, the ground may freeze to death. Opening the roof eliminates this problem, because the snow layer will be the same as the outside. And when the winter season ends, the accumulated snow mass will melt and systematically go to the soil.
But gardeners should take care of protection from hot weather. Opening the roof helps protect the plants from the scorching sun. When the upper ventilation eliminated drafts, landing cooled evenly. It is worth considering that greenhouses with a folding roof more expensive than usual. But with the right choice, it is possible to provide natural pollination, and in summer the plants will develop in conditions of open ground.
Features and varieties
A greenhouse with an opening roof can look like a greenhouse of a similar construction. The difference between them is in size and weight. There are greenhouses, on the sides of the roof of which special panels are put. A different type means equipping with special panels placed on the sides. There is also a convertible greenhouse.
The roof in this design can move in one direction or move apart in both directions at once. If the onset of a very harsh winter is likely, it is the “gig” that should be considered the best choice. Arched "gigs" are often divided into several composite blocks. Each block either rises to a predetermined height, or fully leans back, or is removed.
A butterfly-shaped greenhouse has vents attached to the main beam. They form a kind of wings on the sides. At the request of the owners can open the roof completely or only its separate part. "Wings" are flat and in the form of an arch.
Most of the designs according to the butterfly pattern are small in height, therefore:
- increases the efficiency of space use;
- the lighting inside will be uniform;
- plants can be planted everywhere.
The design of "Matryoshka" is so named not by chance. Shelter is divided into shear blocks, which are superimposed on one another after displacement. Still such greenhouses are called "canisters". At the end of autumn, all the blocks are laid at one end, the rest of the greenhouse will be open for snow. If you completely remove all the shelter in summer, an additional open ridge will appear instead of a greenhouse. Components of the sliding roof move along the guides. In the hinged construction, the roof just climbs on its hinges.
In addition to opening manually, lifting mechanisms can be used, including those controlled by automatics. The guides are special rails. In fact, the wardrobe principle is used here.
Shapes and sizes of construction
The smallest justified size for a greenhouse is 2x4 m. And the most rational type is 2x10 m.
In this structure can be grown:
- small shrubs;
- saplings of apple and other fruit trees.
Careful examination of the drawings eliminates many errors. This is very important in the manufacture of greenhouses with their own hands, and when ordering a finished design. Many of the problems of farmers are related to the fact that they did not consider the features of the location of the door in the greenhouse or the arrangement of ventilation in it.
The demand for such a solution as a "convertible" is due to ease of installation. The vents are made in such a way that the roof is moved only from the sides. Remove it is not necessary. With a positive air temperature, this greenhouse is used in the mode of ventilation. And when the cold season comes, it will only be necessary to move off part of the roof. Then the snow cover will be formed quickly and will cover the perennial plants from the cold. "Convertible" have two segments, so in the same greenhouse you can grow crops that require quite different development conditions.
An attractive choice for many people is the greenhouse Lotus.
Its dimensions are as follows:
- width - 89 cm;
- in height - 80 cm;
- length - 210 cm
Greenhouses "Lotos" are recommended by professional agronomists for novice gardeners. They have a small height, but they completely protect plants from bad weather. The frame of the "Lotus" is formed from a steel pipe with a zinc coating. Polycarbonate with pollution protection is used to cover the structure. The developers note that "Lotus" can be used for accelerated development of seedlings.
Greenhouses with a sliding roof are in the form of an arch or a tent. The hip type is equipped with four vertical walls. He has a roof with one or two ramps. It also happens arched and flat roof. Some greenhouses oblong walls parallel to each other and tilted inward.
The arched design is more like a tunnel. Its main parts are arcs. At the ends of the installed flat walls. For the manufacture of the frame used angles of steel and aluminum, which can be welded or screwed together. Steel is primed, then painted or coated with a layer of zinc; Aluminum is used without protective layers.
The most comfortable greenhouses reach a height of 200-250 cm. Farmers can walk inside to their full height, and the greenhouse does not take up much space. In most cases, a width of 240-350 cm is recommended. But the final choice must be made independently. You also need to consider what kind of culture to be grown and by what scheme.
Even if the greenhouse is arranged correctly, an error in choosing the covering material negates its dignity. For many decades, plastic film has been used in greenhouses. Even poorly trained and poorly versed people can use it. You can ventilate plants very quickly by removing the roof or wall. But with the active use of the film deteriorates rapidly. Therefore, it is recommended rather for greenhouses with a closed roof.
Glass is much stronger and more practical; it transmits sunlight extremely well. If you take care of the glass greenhouse fully, it will remain transparent for many years. The absolute chemical neutrality of glass constructions will also please gardeners. Even when heated in the sun, the taste of vegetables and berries will remain unchanged, since no substances are released into the air. The glass greenhouse is also resistant to friction.
Of course, glass will not withstand any abrasive effect. However, in general it is the most reliable material in normal use. It is reasonable to say about the weaknesses of the glass that need to be considered. It is heavier than other types of covering material. Most often glass greenhouse is placed on the foundation, especially where the soil is unstable.
But the wind is much less dangerous than using a film. Everyone is aware of such a defect as the increased thermal conductivity of glasses. In the heat of the sun, they warm up very much. Therefore, the microclimate for plants is unfavorable. Even opening the roof does not eliminate the problem until the end. But the biggest minus of the glass greenhouse is its fragility. For various reasons, glass is easily broken. They can break even large hail.
Polycarbonate is several times stronger than glass, and almost as well passes sunlight. When used, its heat is kept stable. Because polycarbonate designs are best suited for greenhouses used year-round. But you should not buy a simple sheet, and honeycomb material. Its name is due to the similarity in structure with the honeycomb. Polycarbonate is made of plastic, which is divided into special layers by ribs and air interlayer. It is this layer and helps to ensure the preservation of heat. Through polycarbonate inside will not get ultraviolet rays.
Most often, the side that eliminates harmful radiation, is marked with a company logo. If you make a mistake and put the polycarbonate outside of the unprotected surface, it will very quickly collapse. Cheap material brands contain a lot of recycled materials. Some varieties of polycarbonate may differ in insufficient density. Therefore, their mechanical strength is less.
Independently install a polycarbonate greenhouse is extremely difficult. Usually, experienced craftsmen are invited for this purpose. In any case, it is necessary to prepare the foundation. If done correctly, the design will last for several decades. It is usually advised to use several air vents in addition to the opening roof and put two doors.
Polycarbonate care is simple. You can wash it with the simplest sponge with a solution of detergent. You can do without detergents, replacing them with soapy water. Exactly undesirable exposure to chlorine and potent solvents. It will be necessary to avoid contact of polycarbonate with toxic chemicals. Another nuance - it is necessary to exclude the ingress of water into the cells of the material.
Tilt angle: which one is better?
In the middle lane, it is recommended to tilt the roof of the greenhouse by 25-30 degrees relative to the horizon. Therefore, the width is selected individually each time. The walls of tent greenhouses should be tilted inward by 10-15 degrees. This technique allows you to make them warmer. For additional wind cover, a green hedge is often used.
In gable greenhouses, the slopes are usually oriented at an angle of 5-60 degrees. If a film is used for the shelter, the slope should be 45-60 degrees. Then the accumulation of snow or rainwater, sagging the roof is excluded. When using polycarbonate, you can mount the roof at an angle of 5-45 degrees. It is useful to take into account that increasing the angle makes the construction more expensive and lowers resistance to wind gusts.
Use and care
Choosing a greenhouse with an opening roof, it is important from the very beginning to install it correctly. First of all, you need to choose a place where the most sunlight falls. This excludes all places blown by cold winds. It is also worth refusing to install greenhouses under the trees and near tall shrubs. The land under the greenhouse must be solid and even, then there will be less problems.
It is necessary to put a greenhouse where the distance to the barn is minimal. Then all the agricultural work will be somewhat easier. Another point is whether it will be convenient to enter the greenhouse. When it is prepared for winter, first of all, it is freed from all vegetation, shelves and tanks are removed. The walls need to be rinsed and then dried.
Fumigation of the greenhouse is carried out systematically. This is mandatory even when using thoroughly tested soil and seed. For fumigation take sulfur bomb or pure sulfur. By the winter, cracked glass or polycarbonate parts should be changed. In severe frost, they quickly burst.
Opening designs require periodic adjustment of work. If there are any problems, you must first clean the clogged grooves. Additionally, lubricate the hinges and tighten them. In the autumn must be carried out decontamination. Old vegetation is dug out and discarded. If it is impossible to completely change the top soil layer, at least you need to disinfect it with potassium permanganate.
When washing, special attention is paid to all the joints and borders of the greenhouse elements. It is there that most often appear colonies of microorganisms and dangerous insects. Elements of polycarbonate must be washed in the spring. If several landings are planned per season, surfaces should be cleaned before each landing.
Hard brushes, abrasive materials and sharp tools cannot be used for cleaning. They will damage the ultraviolet protection of polycarbonate. To destroy pathogens in the ground, you can use steep boiling instead of treatment with potassium permanganate, and then cover the soil with polyethylene. If the metal parts are rusted, it is possible, depending on the complexity of the problem, to paint them or remove rust with special compounds. Check the serviceability of the mechanisms of the greenhouse itself, as well as heating equipment, it is necessary in the late fall and spring.
For washing highly located and hard-to-reach places use mops with long or telescopic handles. Such a device is especially important if glass is used for the shelter. All wooden elements, if any, are treated with herbicides. Then the appearance of mosses and algae is excluded. When some parts are rusted very strongly, you need to completely replace them, without delay.
Modern convertible greenhouses are reasonably reliable. An attractive solution for many people is the “Marussia” model. It can be easily supplemented with automatically opening vents. Using the "Marusia" is very simple. Other greenhouses of domestic production are also highly valued by consumers.
High marks gardeners give the model "Altakraft Oasis." Approval causes ease of opening and a carefully thought out set. You can install a greenhouse with your own hands. Judging by the reviews, airing from above allows you to do without the use of window vents.
The system of Belarusian production "Botanic Tulip" is equipped with doors that can be opened from left to right, and folding windows. It is impossible to use other elements, since everything is already set up at the factory. At "Tulip" opens both a roof, and both walls. From the sides, you can raise the material to 0.8-0.9 m. But if gardeners decide that this is a lot, they can stop the ascent at a lower level.
Owners note that opening the sides to the limit immediately simplifies weeding and other work. As for the design of the "Nurse", it is recommended to choose because of the increased reliability. Even a late cold spring with such a greenhouse does not pose a problem in the subsidiary farm.