Floor mosaic: materials and types
Recently, mosaic tile has become one of the most popular flooring options. It is used to make the room truly original, and is embodied not only in the bathroom and in the kitchen, but also in some other rooms. Most of the owners of the premises prefer to trust the laying of such miniature parts to professionals, but some still carry out such hard work independently. In order not to be mistaken in choosing such a tile, as well as to properly lay it, you need to familiarize yourself in advance with all its characteristics and installation rules. All these questions will be discussed in detail in this article.
The main feature of the floor mosaic is the small size of the tile plates themselves. Square details have the parameters of 1 to 1 cm. Also there are such tiles that are fixed on a common base and are already more dimensional plates. Their parameters can be as much as 10 by 10 cm, or 30 by 30 cm, depending on the mounting technology.
A distinctive feature of the mosaic, located on the floor or walls, is the ability to create compositions and drawings with the help of small details.
Most often you can see mosaic panels in the kitchen or in the bathroom, but the variety of materials presented for a similar floor allows you to put it in other rooms.
Mosaic floors are one of the hallmarks of luxury and wealth. Due to the fact that the entire surface is divided into small sections, the floor reflects more light, giving the room an even better look.
It is important to take into account such a feature of the floor that the details are laid out only on a carefully prepared base. The elements look really beautiful only if they were placed on a perfectly flat surface.
In the modern construction market, floor covering material according to mosaic technology is represented in a huge variety. This explains the presence of several options for the classification of such tiles on the species. The first sign is the material from which the coating is made.
Ceramic variety is produced through the implementation of two stages. On the first of these, the clay undergoes the burning process, on the second, the material is covered with a special glazed layer, which can be presented in various colors. A weighty advantage of this option is the high strength of the finished coating, and a special “depth” is also given with the help of such an texture.
For most buyers, an important factor is the variety of choice in combination with a pleasant price.
The floors made of stone mosaics look elegant and expensive. Such materials as marble and granite can be taken as a basis for this floor. The price of a similar tile is usually high, but it looks beautiful both in closed rooms and on balconies or terraces. The material also has high strength, which is perfectly combined with aesthetic advantages. Natural material can be presented as a matte finish, but sometimes the stone is glazed to achieve a glossy effect.
For open spaces or areas near a private house, a concrete mosaic coating would be a good option. Cement is taken as the basis for the creation of this material, while it is combined with special additives that give the coating various shades. The finished plot resembles the surface of the pavement.
The most economical way is to purchase material on the basis of broken tiles. It is great for creating various patterns on the floor surface.
In rooms with a high level of humidity the most optimal is the version with glass mosaic. This material is considered to be one of the most resistant to the effects of water, as well as various chemical elements contained in detergent and disinfectant compositions. As a rule, the drawing in this version is applied on the reverse side of the parts, but it is one of the most durable.
If you want to create an interesting panel on the floor surface, then this type of material for mosaic, such as smalt, is useful to you. It is a colored glass that is not transparent and can be painted in various shades.
Using special adhesives, smalt can even be laid on the surface of wood and metal.
In addition to the above materials, wooden elements can be part of a small floor tile. This option is only suitable for rooms with a dry microclimate, however, since moisture exposure is not excluded, give preference to such types of raw materials as coconut or bamboo, which are fairly hard materials. Such floors are very harmoniously combined with eco-style, as well as with various ethnic interior concepts. Unlike some other types of raw materials, this coating is not cold, so movement on it will not deliver discomfort.
A special kind of mosaic is Terrazzo. It is based on natural elements that act as fillers. These may include porcelain, pebbles, marble chips. The composition of the mixture of this decor can be changed according to individual preferences. The advantage of such floors is their strength, but after laying the mosaic requires mandatory grinding and polishing.
To give the room a special atmosphere and create a good color combination, usually choose a mosaic flooring such as Mix. It involves a combination of different textures and shades. As a rule, such materials as natural stone and glass, porcelain stoneware and marble elements, metal and glass parts are combined. Such combinations look very contrasting and unusual, while this option of coverage is not very expensive.
One of the unusual types of raw materials for the manufacture of mosaic tiles is aluminum. Often it is made out of bronze, gold and other metals with the help of special color pigments added to the starting material.
The material has a fairly high strength, so it is often installed in rooms with a high level of terrain.
The second sign by which mosaic-type tile coverings are classified is the method of their fastening and placement.
The most painstaking and long work requires such options in which each element is a separate part. Their disadvantage is the time spent on finishing, but with the help of this mosaic you can come up with a design that fully emphasizes your individuality and will be completely different from other options.
If you want to facilitate the work on the laying, then you can give preference to the options where the mosaic elements are mounted on a common base according to the figure and form larger parts. Chips are fixed on a common frame, made of special mesh or paper, so that from the outside they look like separate parts. At the same time the process of their laying will be much faster. Choosing this option, remember that it is not suitable for creating complex drawings, panels or compositions. But making out the floors of the rooms, decorated in a minimalist style, it is very advantageous to dwell on a similar variant of the coating.
On the surface of this type of tile there are usually notches.
This feature became the basis for the following material classification.
- In the first version, the notches are represented as in-depth slits, which most likely mimic independent elements. But such a coating requires such a procedure as grouting.
- Sometimes the notches can be represented by less deep seams, which are filled with factory-made grout. Such options are convenient, but they have such a disadvantage as instability to transportation. During transportation, factory grout often cracks and crumbles, so you have to seal up the defects yourself later.
- There is also a slot-free version. The relief effect is created due to the presence of square and round-shaped pixels in this coating, which have different sizes. From a distance, the mosaic is more pronounced, but on closer examination, the effect diminishes.
Advantages and disadvantages
Before you decide to decorate the floors in the room using a mosaic tile, you need to consider that such a coating has not only positive but also negative characteristics.
The advantages of the mosaic include the following nuances.
- Additional level of protection against mechanical damage. The durability of the coating of small particles is particularly noticeable in the case of point damage. Even if some element is damaged, it can be replaced without having to dismantle a large part of the surface.
- Porcelain stoneware and ceramic floor tiles have a high level of resistance to alkalis, acids, and other chemicals. At the same time, this tile is quite easy to clean.
- Mosaic has a low level of moisture absorption, so most materials are perfect for flooring in bathrooms, saunas and swimming pools.
- UV resistance is another sign explaining the durability of a similar floor. The tile does not fade, does not lose its aesthetic appeal, therefore, it is used for laying on terraces.
- In those types of raw materials that are used for mosaic floors, no harmful substances are added, so all of them can be called environmentally friendly. Such floors do not emit any impurities into the air and do not harm health.
- The main product line is very affordable for the majority of the population. Also, a positive nuance is the ability to choose the ideal version of the material, since it is presented in a wide variety.
- It is also worth noting the shape of the tiles themselves. It is not limited to squares and rhombuses. You can also find triangular, multifaceted and various asymmetric elements that diversify the look of the room.
- Mosaic floor is combined with almost all styles of interior. Just select the desired texture, color and material.
- With the help of small elements you can turn the floor surface into a work of art. Mosaic can lay out various panels, arrange patterns and transform the entire look of the room.
- An important positive feature is the elasticity of this coating. The substrate on which parts are formed, as a rule, has special gaps. This allows you to place the mosaic not only on flat, but also on protruding or rounded bases.
- Mosaic has an additional function, in addition to decorative. It is often used for zoning rooms. This is especially true for many modern studio apartments and large mansions.
Among the shortcomings of the material are the following nuances.
- If you are going to cover a large area, then such repairs will be quite expensive. Especially it concerns materials from natural breeds of a stone which in themselves have high price.
- The need for very thorough surface preparation. Even the slightest flaw can spoil the result. Therefore, a lot of time is usually spent on work. In addition, it is recommended to apply for the service of such a clutch to professionals, which again requires additional financial costs.
- The surface of most tile types, especially for glazed versions, is rather slippery. In rooms with a high level of humidity this is fraught with injury. But this nuance is regulated by purchasing special mats.
- Many materials, especially natural stone, make the floor quite cold. Therefore, when choosing products, consider in which room they will be located, the general indoor climate and the characteristics of the residents. If walking on shoes on such a floor, this drawback is not critical.
When you decide on the choice of mosaic material for the decor of the floor surface, you can begin the process of laying. The most popular option is to install a mosaic tile on a grid frame. This procedure includes a number of stages, the most important of which is the preparation of the base for the mosaic.
This training is as follows.
- Leveling floors. The surface must be perfect, so the alignment procedure is best done using level and building beacons. With the help of these devices, as well as a special mixture is screed floors.
- Before you put the floor, you need to make a markup, greatly simplifying the entire subsequent installation process. You need to mark it from the central part of the room, placing several fragments nearby. After you need to measure the parameters of the resulting area, and then, using a bumper thread, a triangle and a tape measure, mark the rest of the surface.
- Further, based on the resulting markup, you can calculate the amount of material required.
The adhesive composition is applied sequentially. Before laying each element, one marking cell must be treated with glue and, using a comb, level its layer. In order for the coating to sit more firmly, a bonding compound should also be applied on the reverse side of the tile. You can not smear glue at once the entire surface, because it dries before you have time to fill all the mosaic.
The tile should be carefully positioned in the cell so that it lies perfectly flat. Use a rubber or foam grater to smooth out the elements. Pay attention to the fact that the seams between them should be the same. Do not carry out this process with your hands, because due to the uneven distribution of force, the result of the work may not be so good. After performing the cleaning of the seams from the speakers surplus glue.
Leave the surface for a couple of days so that the glue is completely dry, and then proceed to the grout. Prepare the trowel compound and, using a rubber spatula, carefully fill in the seams.
Zatirochnaya mixture grab after a third of an hour. After that, the excess should also be removed. This is done with a dry, clean cloth. No need to make a strong effort to not remove more grout than it should.
When the mixture is completely dry, you need to make a wet cleaning of the surface.
Please note that there are different types of grouting material. The epoxy-based version does not require the addition of additional components, as it is resistant to moisture. But the cement variety involves the use of sealant as an additional protective element.
A separate algorithm is the design of such an insert as a mosaic panel.
The procedure requires the following sequence of actions:
- on a flat and clean floor surface you need to draw a picture, according to which the future of the panel will be laid out;
- further plan the exact location of the elements, their required number and shape;
- at the third stage, accurate cutting of details is carried out;
- the rest of the procedure is the same as for the grid mosaic.
Please note that for closed rooms the accuracy of the location of the fragments is more important than for open terraces.
Therefore, many designers recommend to choose for the mosaic such spaces where small errors will not be critical. This is especially true of those who do not have much experience in self-laying floors.
The implementation of proper care for the mosaic floor can not only maintain its appearance at a high level, but also prolongs the life of the material.
When cleaning coarse debris, it is best to use a vacuum cleaner, since it will damage the grout to a lesser extent. If you prefer a brush, then choose those models that have soft bristles.
Watch out for detergent formulations. It is better not to purchase products containing aggressive acids.
The number of cleanings is determined by the degree of terrain and pollution of the room. On average, wet cleaning without the use of detergents can be done once or twice a week. Once a month it is possible to carry out general cleaning with various cleansing compositions. But this schedule may vary depending on individual pollution indicators.
Many of those who decided to make a mosaic floor in the rooms of their house, can not decide on a specific version of its design. Designers offer a huge number of beautiful examples of placement of such tiles in various rooms of the house.
В прихожей будут прекрасно смотреться следующие варианты:
- сочетание мелкой мозаики с цветочным узором станет особенно актуальным, если в помещении присутствуют такие архитектурные элементы, как колонны;
- using mosaics, you can create a color contrast, as well as an imitation of a carpet element located near the door or in the central part of the hall;
- a win-win option is geometry; complex mosaic combinations help to enclose one figure in another, impressing visitors at home with unusual features.
For a long narrow corridor, the flooring design may be as follows:
- tile mosaic is often laid out like a carpet, with patterns located at the edges and sometimes in the center;
- if the walls are painted in a light neutral shade, then the floor can perform an accent function; therefore, when choosing a mosaic, reliance is placed on the geometry;
- The corridor space can be varied with the help of a mosaic tile made in pastel colors, for example, pink.
A favorite place for the location of the mosaic covering is the bathroom.
Here the mosaic can be made very interesting.
- The pattern on the floor can often become a continuation of the ornament on the walls. In some cases, especially if the combination of colors is harmonious, this option looks really creative.
- Maritime themes are very appropriate in bathrooms.therefore, mosaic elements often have a blue tint and can cover not only the floor, but also other interior details.
- If the mosaic tile is located on the floor, plumbing fixtures and walls, then the use of a gradient is a good technique.
The kitchen is a great place to decorate the floor with a mosaic tile.
The following options will be relevant in this room:
- the pastel color ensemble in the mosaic is perfectly combined with the white kitchen;
- if you plan to use two textures, you can arrange them so that one is the main one and the other forms a pattern.
Considering all the features of such material as floor tile mosaic, you can transform any room of your house. Such coverage will help you to impress guests, complement any style and emphasize your individuality.