Enamel: characteristics, composition and features of the application
Paintwork materials provide people with many opportunities. However, to properly use them, you need to know a number of subtleties. This fully applies to the use of enamel products.
What it is?
Enamel is a type of paintwork material formed by mixing pigments and solvents. With the help of varnish they are turned into a suspension. When the coloring composition hardens, it forms a strong colored film on the surface, impervious to light rays. This film can have a different texture, so such products are widely demanded.
In addition to their decorative function, enamels often struggle with traces of rust that have accumulated on the surface.
When any enamel dries, the solvent evaporates, and the resins become stronger. Crucial in assessing the properties of a composition is the concentration in its composition of the binder. This parameter directly affects the visible gloss and properties when pouring a liquid paint. The total drying time does not exceed 3 hours, but the recipe can vary greatly.
Do not confuse ordinary enamel with enamel paint, which is obtained by grinding pigments in a mixture with artificial or oil lacquer.
The composition of the enamel may include various types of resins:
- polyvinyl chloride and a number of others.
Regardless of the specific type, in the process of solidification, not only physical, but also chemical changes of the coatings take place. Thanks to them, the enamel surface is durable and resistant even to attempts to dissolve it with the same composition.
- Epoxy, urea formaldehyde and alkyd enamel paints dry approximately 24 hours. Aerosol enamel differs from the usual not so much the chemical composition (it can be different), as a simplified application. A side effect of this turns out to be, unfortunately, a markedly higher consumption compared to manual dyeing.
- Nitro-based formulations were originally created for painting cars. Their developers were able to achieve extremely rapid drying (15 - 30 minutes). But finishers, though not immediately, also appreciated the characteristics of such coloring compositions.
- Oily Enamel is a phthalic resin, to which is added vegetable oil and pigments. The coating formed with it is extremely durable with a pleasant sheen.
If you need to buy odorless paint and varnish materials, you should pay attention to latex enamel.
The technical properties of the enamel make it possible to use it when applying markings on highways, painting rail and air vehicles, and various rescue and signaling devices. The effect of daytime fluorescence provides maximum brightness of the coating in sunlight or in ultraviolet rays. To prevent fading, the enamel is applied in three layers and covered with a pair of protective varnishes AC-528 on top. Before use, mix the mixture thoroughly and pour 667th diluent into it.
Enamel can be applied on the painted and well-polished surface without treating the base with phosphoric primers.
Able to paint well prepared surfaces from:
- reinforced concrete.
This type of enamel is formed by a suspension of pigments and fillers. It is prepared using solutions of glyptal and perchlorovinyl resin in an organic solvent of high volatility. The mixture is applied using pneumatic or vacuum spraying.
It is designed to cover aluminum and steel surfaces, and for a short time it can be applied to wood. Surface treatment not impregnated with primer is allowed. The coating is characterized by low viscosity. The created layer differs in resistance to the most different climatic conditions, to the effects of still water and industrial lubricating oils.
Enamel is designed to update the appearance of different surfaces, as well as to protect them from the destructive action of aggressive substances. When painting in two layers over primers of a special type, the coating can retain its consumer characteristics for up to 5 years in a temperate climate zone, in tropical regions this period is reduced to 1 year.
Delivery is carried out in containers of at least 18 kg. The applied layer does not exfoliate; it may have the most unique colors, including smoky and pistachio.
It is necessary to consider the fire danger of enamel. Its main application is the coating of vehicles and construction specialized equipment.
Enamel copes well with the protection of various structures and buildings in the usual atmosphere. The everyday name of the mixture ("silverfish") vividly characterizes its appearance. With the help of enamel, you can paint metal products, concrete, wood.
There is no need for pre-priming, the coating becomes semi-gloss, elastic and resistant to temperatures up to 200 degrees. The surface does not have "pock" and "wrinkles", can be applied accelerated hot drying (after spraying or smearing with a brush).
With enamel, you can provide decent protection against aggressive chemicals (acidic or alkaline). It contains a copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride and epoxy resin. Paintwork material perfectly covers the metal surface of any kind. Its stability is evidenced by the fact that the coating is suitable for application to freight cars and tanks, technological equipment, reinforced concrete structures. Enamel calmly transfers contact with mineral acids and salts, with caustic alkalis and corrosive gases.
Primer and enamel retain their "viability" at room temperature for at least 8 hours. The application is made by the pneumatic method, the use of the brush is permissible only on individual areas. The working humidity of the air is at most 80%, and the surface must be heated at least 3 degrees above the dew point.
It is unacceptable to work with the HS-759 in the immediate vicinity of sources of fire, in places with poor ventilation and without rubber gloves.
Storage is recommended in hermetically sealed containers that will not be exposed to direct sunlight.
The enamel of this category is designed to cover the thoroughly primed metal surfaces. Resistance to weathering is provided only partially, when placing the painted surface under a canopy. Also, the mixture can be used indoors. Anti-corrosion properties are stable even with the active action of various substances. When the water is still (non-moving) water, the resistance at room temperature is 24 hours.
The main application is not the construction industry, but shipbuilding. This mixture was originally developed for the anticorrosive protection of underwater parts and sections of the variable waterline. The cost of coverage is less than that of foreign counterparts, and the physical characteristics are no worse.
In addition, it is resistant to:
- automobile and aviation gasoline;
- fuel oil;
- fuel for diesel engines;
- technical lubricants;
- salty sea water.
The mechanical characteristics of the XC-436 are so high that it can safely be used to finish the hulls of icebreakers. The shelf life of the four standard layers is 4 years, and in the area of the changing waterline three layers are applied (they will last up to 2 years). Enamel has found another use: it is painted with the supports of bridges and port structures.
Some construction teams are beginning to use the XC-436 and when finishing private houses, apartments.
Sometimes this enamel covers the outer contours of underwater pipelines, including those designed for the passage of petroleum products and natural gas.
The enamel coating is designed to protect the metal used in a variety of climatic areas, including tropical and subtropical regions, from corrosion. Chemical base paint is a mixture of acrylic and alkyd resins with a desiccant. Under moderate temperature and humidity conditions, the coating is stable for at least 5 years. After applying the composition does not remain stains and does not appear unnecessary inclusions.
You can work only after cleaning and drying the surface. According to the technology, it is permissible to use high-boiling solvents. In the process of painting and after its completion, thorough ventilation of the working room is required. You can perform work in the open air.
Refers to the number of thick anti-corrosion materials. The chemical nature of the mixture is epoxy, surface preparation is not particularly critical. The addition of aluminum powder enhances protection.
Enamel can be applied in:
- chemical industry;
- petrochemical industry;
- transport infrastructure;
- metallurgical production;
Anticorrosion protection is provided both inside and outside the premises; it is not impaired with wet disinfection and with an average level of aggressiveness of the atmosphere. The color of the composition is gray or silver-gray, the concentration of non-volatile substances ranges from 78 to 83%.
Pretreatment of surfaces involves the removal of dirt and grease, removal of scale, rusty areas and old paintwork. It is impossible to dilute the enamel, its application is made either with a brush, or a roller, or by air spraying. The shortest drying time under favorable conditions is at least 6 hours.
It is possible to work with enamel IZOLEP only in glasses, a protective mask and integral rubber gloves. It is also recommended to wear a respirator.
Do not use paintwork materials in rooms with poorly functioning ventilation, as well as in conditions of increased fire danger. It is permissible to use enamel in the repair of the surface, previously finished with epoxy and polyurethane mixtures.
It should be borne in mind that the conditions on a particular object may differ from the standard ones described in the manufacturer’s instructions.
Enamels of the brand are designed for anti-corrosion insulation of the surface of steel. Drying time at room temperature reaches 3 hours.
This type of paintwork material can be used in:
- mechanical engineering;
- manufacture of industrial installations and machine tools;
- finishing of sea freight containers.
In addition to a decent resistance to corrosion, enamel is resistant to weathering and excellent adhesion. The coating is elastic, insensitive to the destructive action of petroleum products, fresh and salt water, solutions of mineral salts. The use of enamel outside the temperate and cold climate zone is unacceptable. The original surface must be thoroughly cleaned, degreased and coated with a primer. It is recommended to store EP-1236 at temperatures from -30 to +30 degrees.
The mixture is used to finish the metal in order to protect it from acids and alkalis. Below should be a layer of primer series XC. The created coating is not destroyed by gasoline, inorganic acids, caustic gases. It is important to take into account that the maximum resistance is guaranteed only to reagents heated to no more than 60 degrees. When this mark is exceeded, the stability of the properties is not always maintained.
Coloring can be gray or red-brown, drying at room temperature takes a maximum of 60 minutes. The mass concentration of non-volatile substances ranges from 27 to 33%, in volume terms, the figure is 12 - 16%. Surface treatment is performed in the mode of pneumatic or vacuum spraying. According to the technology it is forbidden to work near open fire and highly heated objects. The warranty period for the XC-710 is 1 year.
GOST water-based enamels are all those mixtures that are created with acrylic emulsion. The advantage of using water as a solvent allows you to drastically reduce the sharpness of the smell. Acrylic paints and enamels are very plastic, which increases their resistance to frost. However, to ensure the reliability of the layer is possible only after removing the deformed old coatings and using a primer that suppresses the development of microorganisms.
Enamel will work on a wooden surface for 8 years, and on a metal or plaster substrate - approximately two decades.
An important role is played by the coloring created with the help of building enamel. Even the most durable and stable coating in modern conditions can no longer be considered quite suitable for work, it also requires an aesthetic effect. Pearl variety does not just look beautiful, it allows you to create an unusual feeling. This result is achieved due to the powder refracting the light rays falling on it.
It is possible to plant mix only with use of aqueous emulsion dyes.
Only an experienced master should work with powdered reagent. Errors and deviations from the technology lead to the fact that lumps appear. Paste allows you to create a wide range of colors and always turns out to be homogeneous. But to store it as long as the powder does not work. It is important to remember that golden pearlescent reflux can only be used in the interior decoration, on the outside it will fade very quickly due to exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Glossy enamel pleases consumers with external smoothness and intense shine. Such coatings are resistant to water, can be used when finishing rooms with excessive moisture levels. Red and blue enamels PF-115 are able to maintain long-lasting saturated color. Even excessive moistening or temperature jerks are not dangerous to cover. Importantly, the color does not change from the opening of the can until the end of the drying.
In addition to the actual characteristics, it is worth considering the product features of various manufacturers of enamels. For example, under the brand "Rainbow" water-based and water-dispersion mixtures are sold for exterior and interior use. Also this company produces latex and washable compounds, "Prestige" produces enamels for concrete and ordinary floors, coatings with hammer effect. Also, the company's range includes heat-resistant and radiator, matte and super-white paintwork.
How to choose?
Most often, the choice of enamel for outdoor work is done in favor of organosilicon compounds, which are very strong and last a long time. The variety of possible shades is another significant plus of such products.
If you need a quick drying, it is necessary to give preference to alkyd mixtures (they dry in just 6 hours). The XB series is designed for those who do not care whether the created surface is glossy. For work on concrete and brick is recommended XB-161.
When performing internal work, the type of surface to be trimmed is taken into account. Of great importance is the importance of the hydrophobic properties of the paintwork material. Of the decorative parameters of the essential color and texture, the degree of gloss. The polyurethane composition is very wear-resistant, but the increased price limits the use of such enamels. Nitrocellulose variations are suitable mainly for finishing wood.
Lattices, machine tools and other metal products will become more attractive after using hammer enamel. To prepare the surface for painting them is not difficult. When painting batteries, it is worth paying attention not only to the hydrophobic properties of the composition, but also to its resistance to significant heating. It is equally important to think about the safety of the mixture used, which, even at temperatures above 100 degrees, should not release toxic substances.
Another significant point - thermal conductivity (the higher it is, the better).
- White enamel can be used only on those surfaces that will not be exposed to excessive pollution and dust.
- Enamels on wood with a high concentration of artificial varnishes and a low content of fillers look better than ordinary coatings.
- Alkyd epoxy material series EP unsuitable for regions of the Far North.
- And the materials of the FL series (pheno-oily) rapidly dry out without loss of quality and form very strong coatings.
Contrary to popular belief, quick-drying paint does not contain components harmful to health. Moreover, it mainly includes natural non-toxic substances. Such coatings do not slip, because they can be used in any premises.
However, it should be borne in mind that a high drying rate results in poor adhesion. Even with very thorough surface preparation, a thin layer of enamel should be applied, otherwise it will begin to spread.