Wood Sealants: Varieties and Applications
The structure, made of any raw materials, over time will need maintenance, care and repair. This is especially true of natural building materials, which include wood. Today, there are a huge number of different products for the sale of wood, it is necessary to include sealant for wooden substrates.
Regardless of the type of wood, over time and under the influence of external factors, cracks or gaps may form on the wooden structure, since this natural material is prone to drying out to some degree or another. Modern advanced technologies are not able to stop this process, however, there are effective means that will help eliminate the resulting defects, while maintaining the external attractiveness of the tree and the reliability of the structure or structure.
Wood is a unique building material, the features of which are described below:
- natural origin;
- unique organic composition and fibrous structure;
- deformations arising from temperature effects are noticeable in most parts of the material; in addition, wood shrinks.
The above features make the process of building buildings from timber quite laborious. It is not possible to bond the components of the structure with the help of welding, as in the case of metal, in addition, too rigid fixation of the elements is fraught with problems, since for wood buildings it is necessary to compensate for the temperature expansions of the raw materials. Such features also exclude the possibility of using glue. However, the gaps between the logs or timber can not be left without proper treatment, in particular, this issue is relevant in the construction of the walls of the house, arranging the floor, including parquet, installing windows and door blocks.
Previously, sealing and insulation of cracks and gaps were performed using tow, putty, or jute fiber, but there were some drawbacks to working with such materials, as a result of which materials appeared in the assortment of building products that are much better able to cope with embedment. These products should include sealants for wood, which are widely used for both exterior and interior work.
The sealant can reliably fill cracks of any size, and after a minimum period of time polymerize, forming a water-resistant and elastic mass. The product range includes materials in various shades, which makes it possible to perfectly match the color of the composition to the tone of the log frame, due to which there will be no need to paint the base. In addition, it is worth noting that color and colorless compositions can be tinted on their own.
The resulting protective layer is resistant to UV and temperature fluctuations, but the main advantage of the material, making it indispensable for finishing wood, is the ability to expand with the material. As practice shows, sealants have a level of stretching, exceeding the original size by 300-400%.
It is these specific properties of products that provide sealants with justified popularity, making it the undisputed leader among products for the repair and processing of wooden structures for any purpose.
Products have the following characteristics:
- film formation occurs 20 minutes after application;
- the substance is polymerized at 3 mm per hour;
- the density level of the substance is 1.7 g / cm3;
- products can operate in a temperature range that varies from + 75C to -30C.
It is worth highlighting the reasons why the use of wood sealant is necessary:
- composition prevents material damage;
- specialized substances effectively close the interline seam;
- product life is about 20 years;
- There are no restrictions regarding the climatic zone of the composition.
In order to properly apply products, it is necessary to take into account a number of general recommendations for work.
- All work areas must be decontaminated and old materials used for processing.
- Work on the street must be preceded by clearing the wood from snow and icing.
- In order to maximize the adhesion of the joint compound to the substrate, it is necessary to prime the corners, seams and cracks.
- For large defects on wood, before processing the gap with a sealant, it is necessary to lay a polyethylene foam cord inside, due to which the composition can be saved on consumption.
- The quality of sealing seams will greatly increase if during the work to use special guns or pumps. The choice of a working tool depends on the amount of planned work.
- During the treatment outside the buildings, it is necessary to adhere to the temperature regime. Experts recommend sealing seams at a temperature not lower than 0 ° C.
- Sealant should fit as closely as possible to the wood.
- Wet weather can increase the drying time of the composition.
Based on the specifics of the material It is possible to identify the main applications of wood sealant:
- sealing of interbranch seams, gaps between the timber in the log houses or baths;
- repair of cracks in the material - it can be wall cladding, flooring, log or timber, from which the structure was erected;
- using the composition, it is possible to seal and warm the joints and abutments of wooden structural elements to the bases made of other raw materials, for example, stone, metal or concrete;
- the composition performs insulation and insulation of door blocks and window frames, for these purposes there are compositions "Warm seam";
- sealant recommended for construction and repair of the roof;
- The composition has proven itself during the treatment of internal bases in such wet rooms as the bath or sauna.
On the shelves of building supermarkets presented a large selection of sealing materials for wood. They are classified on the basis of many distinctive factors. Taking into account the composition, they can be divided into two types - two-component and one-component products. The last group of compositions is most demanded. Considering the scope of the sealant, the product is divided into household formulations and professional materials. They differ in the availability of components based on cost, as well as the conditions of use and operation.
Specialized compositions are several times higher and require certain qualifications to work. Household sealants stand out for ease of application. Information about which group of goods this or that sealing material belongs to is indicated by the manufacturers on the packaging. And also products for wood can be divided into two groups: compositions for external and internal use.
All sealing materials consist of fillers, polymer compositions, hardeners and additional substances that improve certain properties of the finished product.
Given the composition of the sealants, they are divided into the following product categories, presented below:
- silicone materials;
The first type of substance includes two subspecies - neutral and acidic materials. Acid sealants contain acetic acid, so the substance will have an appropriate odor during the polymerization process. Such products are considered to be universal, stands out with an affordable price, due to which it is in demand for construction work. However, the composition has certain disadvantages - acidic sealants for wood cannot be used in conjunction with non-ferrous metal, marble and materials that contain alkali.
Ketoxime or alcohol acts as a base for neutral products, due to which they can be used with all types of building materials. Products are much more expensive than the acid composition. Silicone sealants, according to reviews, are durable, show themselves well during the external treatment, have water repellency. The material is resistant to temperature fluctuations, has good elasticity and resistance to external factors.
Dirt does not accumulate on the fully frozen layer; in addition, it cannot be painted or applied another layer of the same substance. Therefore, to carry out a spot repair is not possible, in this case it is necessary to remove the entire composition and apply it again.
Acrylic sealants are used most often, such materials stand out for their low cost and good adhesion to the porous surface. Products can be painted, in its composition completely no toxic components and solvents.
However, their elasticity and moisture resistance are lower in comparison with silicone products. Sharp temperature fluctuations adversely affect the material - it can begin to move away from the surface. Due to this, acrylic compositions are advised to be used for interior work with wood in rooms with a low level of humidity.
For external application, a special siliconized acrylic-based material is commercially available. Such products combined all the best properties of the two sealants, which allows it to process the inter seam gap in the log cabins, the joints in the openings, and also to use for repair other problem areas, including work with cork bases.
Polyurethane based sealants are the most expensive products of this line of building materials. The compositions are characterized by excellent adhesion to most surfaces, in addition, they are well tolerated by mechanical action and have the highest rate of elasticity among analogues.
In addition, the products are not characterized by shrinkage after solidification, which greatly facilitates the calculation of the required amount of material for sealing seams and cracks. The compositions can be used for any kind of work, in addition, they are susceptible to staining after polymerization. Polyurethane sealants also have disadvantages, among which there is a scanty color assortment and a low level of product resistance to sunlight.
The materials are resistant to contact with certain acids and alkalis and are distinguished by a good degree of reliability, even when applied to a damp surface of wood.
Bitumen compositions are based on rubber and bitumen, due to which they have the highest rates of resistance to water. The main scope of the product is the sealing and repair of roofs, drainage systems.
Sealants for thiokol group tree are distinguished by their strength, in addition, the material is resistant to contact with solvents, acids, gasoline and other aggressive substances. Quite often, similar products are used in automobile gas stations, service stations, and so on.
After the selection of a suitable sealing compound is made, the choice of the manufacturer of the product should be determined, since the quality and reliability of the composition will depend on this factor. Among the brands represented on the market there are several companies engaged in the production and sale of these products.
- Neomid - refers to the group of acrylic products, it can be used to repair the timber, to close up the end cuts on the logs from the outside and the inside. Products have a high rate of elasticity and resistance to temperature fluctuations.
- Remmers - German products are compatible with most paints, belongs to the category of universal formulations. Among the available range of materials are presented in a wide range of colors - you can buy white sealant, the composition of the color "tick" or "nut."
- Brand Ceresit - offers silicone compounds for wood, products are distinguished by resistance to ultraviolet and humidity.
- Perma-chink - recommended for work with cracks of great depth, allowed to be used inside and outside the house. The application of the composition should be carried out at a temperature of from +5 C to +32 C. For complete curing, the material should be from 2 to 8 weeks.
- Energy seal - water-soluble composition, which is recommended for sealing small gaps. Differs in firmness of color, durability and vapor permeability.
- Zobel - A German company specializing in the manufacture of paint and varnish materials. The butyl rubber product, silicone-based compounds, which are characterized by a high stretch coefficient, should be distinguished in the range of the proposed sealing compounds.
In addition, the compositions of the Oliva ("Oliva"), "Outline", Axton, VGT brands are on the market.
How to choose?
In order not to be mistaken with the choice of composition for wood, not to get lost in the proposed variety of modern products, worth considering some of the nuances.
- Chopped new log cabins need a sealing material that will have the highest level of elasticity. This is due to the design features, because it is in them that the level of deformation is more significant.
- In a laminated timber structure, conventional compositions can be used, since in this case the shrinkage rate will be small.
- Before buying, it is imperative to check the shelf life of the goods.
- If the sealant is purchased in buckets, it is worth checking the tightness of the container lid.
To calculate the amount of material needed, the scale of the work should be determined - measure the depth and width of the gap or crack. Consumption can be calculated by multiplying the width of the working area by its depth. For triangular seams, the flow must be divided into two.
In addition, in the instructions for the product is always attached information regarding the consumption of material per one meter.
The obtained values may vary based on the density level of a composition. Some manufacturers offer online calculators to calculate the amount of material.
The following tools will be necessary for working with wood: a pistol, a narrow trowel with rounded edges, a paint brush, water and a rag. When carrying out the sealing of seams and cracks with their own hands, the application of the composition is carried out primarily on the horizontal gaps between the rims, the material joints in the corners are processed last.
The technology of works includes several stages.
- Removal of dirt over the entire seam area with a damp cloth.
- After filling the tube with the material into the gun, it is necessary to cut off the nose in it. For convenience, the hole should not exceed 5 mm.
- To distribute the sealant evenly, the gun must be kept parallel to the gap. While squeezing the substance, move the tool along the entire seam. The optimum thickness of the applied layer is 4 mm.
- After finishing applying the material with a spatula, the sealant is evenly smoothed. You should not make great efforts, because it will negatively affect the thickness of the layer, as a result it can become non-uniform and crack.
- To remove excess material from the surface, it must be collected with a clean rag until it hardens. When a film is formed, it should be wetted using a thin brush.
- According to the technology described above, works with other surfaces are performed.
For the first three days, the composition should not be in contact with moisture. The final color material will acquire after complete solidification.
Grouting may be necessary to seal a crack, obligatory cleaning of debris, in addition, the gap must be blown out. Further along the entire perimeter, it is plastered with masking tape, such a precaution will ensure a smooth edge and a neat appearance to the layer. A seal is inserted inside the crack, after which the sealant is applied in an even strip along the entire length. Surplus can be removed with a spatula.
Sealing products can be applied to the surface even in cold weather, but work during precipitation is not recommended. It should be borne in mind that negative temperatures increase the viscosity of the composition, which can complicate the process of applying products. Before working with wood, the sealant should be kept in a warm room for about a day. Diluting products with water and mixing materials from different manufacturers is not recommended, as this will adversely affect the quality of the product and the process of sealing seams. If the composition for any reason has frozen, you should not worry about its quality, you only need to defrost it at a positive temperature, but do not overheat and do not leave it near the heating devices, as this can be fraught with product damage.