Subtleties of attic insulation in a house with a cold roof
The space under the attic is a zone that is one of the most energy-intensive in the house. Warming the attic will help not only to keep the house comfortable, but also to save energy, which must be spent on heating the home space. This process will also help to significantly extend the operation of the entire building.
Warming the attic in a house with a cold roof is especially necessary, since according to statistics, heat loss is about 20%, which is almost one fifth of the budget of an average family. This is due to the fact that, according to the laws of physics, warm air always rushes upwards, which means that thermal insulation of various walls, crevices and connections, as well as surfaces, is simply necessary. This leads to the question of how to implement such an idea.
A long time ago people tried very well to cost private houses that could stand for hundreds of years. It was quite comfortable to live in them, and the frame, made of good wood, constantly remained dry. Most often, the roofs of such houses were made gable and had a small angle of slope. This can be explained by the fact that in the cold season it was necessary to hold the snow on the roof, since, oddly enough, it served as a natural insulation. In the upper part, one window was made, which was closed for the winter so that the air in the attic would play the role of a heat insulator.
In the warm season, the window was opened at night to reduce the temperature in the attic. When it became hot, the windows were closed and the air temperature did not rise, which allowed it to be regulated.
Before starting work on the preparation of attic space insulation, it is necessary to understand exactly how it should be operated in order to select the right set of actions that will enable you to observe the required level of humidity and temperature.
There may be three uses:
- Unheated attic space. In this case, due to the proper insulation, the temperature in the region of 5-50 degrees should be maintained here.
- Warm attic. This type of room can be provided with heat due to ventilation pipes from the living quarters. It is on them that warm air will fall into the attic. Usually such premises are typical for buildings of several floors.
- Attic on heated attic. In this case, the attic will be a normal living space with heating. For insulation of such premises requires significantly less heat and waterproofing. A layer of vapor barrier in this case can not be applied, but at the same time, it is simply necessary to seal high-quality joints and gaps.
When it comes to private construction, the first and third options will be a great solution.
Today in the market you can find a large number of materials that vendors are positioning as excellent solutions for carrying out attic insulation. It is difficult for a simple buyer to understand this sea of options and solutions.
To make the choice as correct and effective as possible, it is necessary to take into account the conditions where such material will be applied:
- It is better to give preference to products that are resistant to moisture.
- If there is wiring in the room, it is better to use fire-resistant materials to avoid a fire when closing.
- Insulation in any case should not be compressed. Otherwise, it may lead to the loss of its basic functions.
- Its properties should be maintained in the temperature range from +25 to -35 degrees. At the same time, with stronger frosts, the insulation should not become freezing, and with a strong heat - release into the air substances harmful to health and the environment.
Before conducting attic floor insulation, it is necessary to take into account the material of which attic floors are made. If wooden beams are used, it is necessary to use heat insulators of one of three types:
If the floor is a whole concrete slab, it is better to use dense slab or bulk heat insulators with a large mass. Thanks to their use, cement screed can be made.
If we talk directly about the materials, then in the form of plates or mats are available:
- polyurethane foam;
- foam concrete.
If we talk about the roll options, they are:
- glass wool;
- stone wool;
As for the bulk materials of the attic, we are talking about such products as:
- expanded clay;
- foam granules;
It is best to carry out insulation of ceilings with environmentally friendly materials. For example, the insulation of ventilation can be made of ecowool or some similar material.
If we talk about sawdust, their main advantage is an affordable price. At the same time, it should be noted that before using them, they should be dried and treated with an antiseptic, or slaked lime should be used, which must be mixed with carbide before. The sawdust affected by fungus should never be used.
Another good natural material that can be used in the described process is reed. It has a low thermal conductivity. As a heater, you can only use mature plants.
If we talk about penoizolthen this material is a slightly modified foam. It is applied in the form of foam, which hardens within a few days. It is not exposed to biological factors, is not afraid of moisture and is not subject to burning. At the same time, if we talk about its shortcomings, then when using it, it is necessary to use special equipment, as well as to have certain knowledge.
Expanded clay - one more material on which I would like to stop my attention. It is absolutely environmentally friendly and fireproof. True, its disadvantage is high thermal conductivity. In order for it to perform its functions qualitatively, it is necessary to pour about 20 cm of it in a layer.
Mineral wool - also quite popular material with low thermal conductivity. Most often sold in the form of mats or rolls. Its main drawback is the high price. But recently, many have resorted to the use of ecowool, which has not the worst characteristics, but much cheaper.
In general, it can be noted that the choice of insulation depends on the personal preferences of the owner of the property, as well as on each particular attic.
The first action that needs to be done as part of the preparatory work is to clean the attic from things and various debris, because in almost 90% of cases the attic is used as storage for things. If there has already been an attempt to warm the attic, then you should completely get rid of all traces of this process.
Also should be carried out hydro-and thermal insulation of the attic.
If the former insulation remains, it is necessary to check the condition in which it is, as some areas are especially susceptible to the appearance of rot and fungus. They should be removed and treated with antifungal agents.
After this, it is necessary to make sure that there are no cracks or gaps in the ceiling of the wooden floor or roof, pediments, rafters and other elements. If they are found during the inspection, they must be removed by applying putty or replacing damaged items.
If we talk specifically about the floor covering, then it must be carefully examined for irregularities. If they are available, they must be eliminated. After that, impregnate the beams with antiseptic. Then you need to collect the reel floor - boards are nailed to the beams from the side of the house.
After the preparatory work has been completed, you can begin to conduct attic insulation with your own hands. Technology depending on the type of insulation may be different.
Mineral wool laying
If it is required to warm the ceiling with mineral wool, then first a layer of vapor barrier is laid on the floor and lags. As a rule, to create such a layer, you can use a foil, polyethylene or a special membrane. It is laid overlapped, and the joints are smeared with glue, after which insulation rolls are laid on top. Also mineral wool is placed between the rafters.
When viewed from the side of the eaves, the material is laid horizontally, setting it on its side, which allows you to create a barrier to the penetration of the wind. In the presence of blowing the room on all of this design impose additional insulation, which has the ability to pass steam. As a rule, it is best to use isospination in this case. The implementation of such a scheme to create a kind of "cake" will significantly improve the insulating characteristics of non-residential attic.
Thermal insulation foam
If the choice fell on the foam, its use will provide an opportunity to get a monolithic coating of thermal insulation type. We should start with the fact that this heater fits only on a flat surface, which means that all irregularities on the floor must be removed beforehand. After this, a vapor barrier is laid on the base.
Now, in a staggered manner, the plates of insulation are laid, and the joints are closed with mounting foam. When it hardens, it is necessary to make a cement-sand mortar and screed. It is important to know that the layer of this solution must be at least 5 cm thick. This technology is considered to be quite successful.
Sawdust and straw
If it is decided to choose sawdust, then this is also a good option. This old method of warming the house for more than a dozen years.
First, remove all existing gaps with clay. After that, a small amount of sand should be laid on the floor so that it fills the gaps in the floor, if there are any. Then the base is sprinkled with a compound of carbide and hydrated lime, thus avoiding the possible appearance of rodents.
After that, you can pour sawdust. The layer thickness should be up to 20 cm. Since sawdust is a combustible material, it should be sprinkled with slag. This will be the final stage, since no material over sawdust no longer fits.
You can also warm the attic floor with straw. For this, the attic base is covered with a clay layer of about 5 mm, after which the straw is laid. Its thickness can range from 20 to 45 cm. In this case, everything will depend on the climate.
To prevent the possibility of the appearance of rodents, as in the previous cases, you should use slaked lime with the addition of carbide. But you can use other substances. After that, a layer of clay with a thickness of 2 cm is applied to the straw, which will prevent the fire insulation from igniting in case of a fire hazard.
It is also possible to carry out the insulation of the attic with polystyrene foam. It is usually used in old houses, where the floors are made of wood. It perfectly keeps heat and does not form any load on the supporting structures. In addition, polystyrene is easily cut and mounted. It is also worth noting that it does not absorb water at all and is an environmentally friendly material.
To warm the place under the roof and the floor, use the plate thickness of 12-14 cm. They are laid in 2 layers. The first is fixed between the lags, and the second - on them. After that, the whole structure is reinforced with slats, which are then vapor-insulated. The final touch will be upholstery plywood or plating with the help of clapboard.
But you should know that to apply such insulation in the attic should be only when this room will have a technical focus or act as a utility room.
If it is decided to use the attic in some other way, then it is better not to use this material due to the fact that it does not protect against noise and poorly resists the effects of various chemicals. In addition, few types of polystyrene foam are fire resistant.
Another good option for attic warming is the use of eco wool. This type of insulation is stacked using a blower installation. The advantage of this method is the lack of need to prepare the base. However, such a layer will be uniform without gaps.
Ecowool thickness should be about 25 cm, so that it perfectly performs its duties. However, you should know that during operation the amount of insulation will decrease. For this reason, ecowool needs to be increased by a quarter. After applying the layer after 1-3 weeks should appear so-called protective crust, which will be evidence of the completion of the process of insulation.
We warm the communication
But it is not limited to floor insulation. If you do not intend to make an attic, then it is imperative to perform the insulation of ventilation channels, as well as all types of pipes that are available, as engineering communications in the attic require insulation for sure.
This can be done with mineral wool by simply wrapping it around the pipes, and then covering them with roofing felt and securing with wire. Or you can buy ready-made shells for communications, including fan one, which is made from polyurethane foam, foam plastic or other materials. To fix them, you just need to snap on the pipe and wrap with tape. By the way, the price of such insulators is low.
We warm the cold attic
This method can be used if access to the attic for some reason is impossible or extremely limited. He has a certain drawback - the height of the ceilings in the summer cottage or other building will be less. Insulation in this case consists of the same actions as when creating insulation. But they should be carried out in the reverse order: first, you need to put a vapor barrier film, then insulation, which must also be covered with a vapor barrier layer.
The ceiling is insulated as follows:
- First, the membrane is attached to the surface with a sealing adhesive.
- It creates crates from wooden slats. The pitch should be about 0.5 m.
- Insulation is inserted into the interframe space.
- Then the vapor tight membrane is attached with the same adhesive.
- It remains to wait for the glue to dry.
Tips and tricks
This process has a lot of features and subtleties, and therefore, should be carried out immediately and in the complex:
- If we talk about advice and recommendations, then, first of all, you should answer the question: for what purposes will the attic be used at home. This will make it possible to understand what set of measures must be carried out for high-quality attic insulation.
- Another important tip is need to examine reviews of materials. The fact is that it is impossible to try all the insulation materials in your house, but it is easy to understand which of them is the most effective, because someone is warming their attic with penoisol or polyurethane foam, and someone is using penoplex. Thanks to the reviews you can understand exactly what material to use in the house.
- The next important point is should not be saved on thermal insulation materials. It is better to spend a little more money, but put everything tightly inside the room in the attic. This will allow you to get the maximum effect of the insulation, which should be not only internal but also external.
- Conducting thermal insulation attic - this business is extremely responsible and requires maximum concentration and understanding of the whole essence of actions. After all, if the insulation is not made according to the technology, then the effect of it will be extremely small. For this reason, you need to have the maximum theoretical base to cope with this task quickly and easily.
For how to insulate the attic floor with mineral wool, see this video.