Plasterboard ceilings: types of structures and design
The choice of ceiling design is one of the most difficult, yet entertaining puzzles when repairing an apartment.
This article will help you not to get lost in the variety of variations on the theme of style, proper lighting and design design, so that upon completion of the repair work, the ceiling becomes that final eloquent chord in your new interior.
The building materials market is a gigantic variety of means to decorate floors, walls and ceilings. Much of the presented is suitable only for office space, while the other is advisable to use only in residential premises.
But there is a third option, universal - drywall, which is suitable for any type of room. The ceiling seems to be the main visual element of any room, since when we find ourselves in a new place, the ceiling is the first thing we pay attention to.
Gypsum board is a material used in construction for covering, installing partitions, and lining the ceiling, mainly in rooms with a dry and unsaturated environment. It is a sheet of two dense layers of construction paper and thickened gypsum filler with various additional fillers.
Drywall is a unique eco-friendly and clean finishing material.
This material is not amenable to burning and does not emit toxins, maintains a favorable atmosphere in the room. The standard size of any drywall is 120 centimeters wide..
The gypsum plasterboard is fixed to the facing surface with the help of plaster mastic or on the batten using metal screws. Being an inexpensive, convenient and practical material, drywall for several years is one of the main elements in the construction work, which was preferred by many builders.
Formerly, the gypsum plasterboard was used exclusively for leveling the surface, but after some modifications and the appearance of a wide range of plasterboard sheets began to be used as structural elements. In particular, the material came to taste the designers for the creative possibilities that he gave them.
Drywall is not only able to level your ceiling, but also drastically change your interior.. The ceiling has an unusual shape with lighting, wall panels, a fireplace, an arch, a shelf, a partition, and much more - these are excellent solutions for identifying living areas that will make it more functional.
Advantages and disadvantages
Before you decide on a finishing material for a dwelling, it is necessary to find out all the advantages and disadvantages of drywall sheets. Possessing the knowledge and subtleties of this material, you can insure yourself in the future against frustration and all sorts of unpleasant situations in the repair process. The use of drywall in the design of the ceiling has both positive and negative qualities. Let's analyze each of them.
- Easy installation. When installing a suspended plasterboard ceiling, there is no need to wait for the mortar to dry, given the dimensions of the living space and even the meager repair skills — no more than three days to finish.
- Low weight material.
- Wide variety of shapes - With the help of drywall, you have the opportunity to embody multi-level designs of various shapes with unusual bends.
- High ductility - using water, drywall takes the shape you need.
- It has a high level of noise and heat insulation. Using this material, you will increase the insulation characteristics of the room.
- Communications camouflage. Easy and fast production of various designs, in which you can hide wire, cable, pipe, duct and various types of communications.
- Plasterboard surfaces can be used for further painting., pasting any type of wallpaper, revealing ceramics and tiles.
- Rich selection of material. The market makes it possible to choose the necessary drywall drywall of the required thickness with different operating properties. For example, moisture resistant material is used for cladding indoors with high humidity (kitchen, bathroom).
- Lighting system. Gypsum ceiling often used as a frame for any type of lighting.
With all the advantages of this material, it is worth being prepared for certain disadvantages:
- Reducing the height of the room. Suspended ceiling structures are taken away by the order of five centimeters in height due to the use of additional embossed profiles, respectively, are contraindicated in low rooms.
- The occurrence of cracks. If the plasterboard is not correctly installed, cracks may appear at the joint in the future.
- To preserve the material in its original form, certain conditions are necessary, namely, it is prohibited to store drywall in rooms with high humidity and lack of heating.
- It is not advisable to use drywall for ceiling cladding in a room where there is a high probability of being flooded from above, as the gypsum board sheet swells under the influence of water, the mass becomes larger and the structures may collapse.
- When installing plasterboard shelves it is not recommended to fix massive elements on them, since the plaster "stuffing" is easy to damage.
- At the end of the installation it is extremely difficult to make extraordinary finishing works, to mask the joints of gypsum sheets and the cracks that have arisen.
- Fragility. Gypsum plasterboard sheets can break during careless transportation, installation and operation, so you must be extremely careful and careful when repairing or building ceiling partitions. It is also recommended to refrain from using drywall where it is planned to install a heavy structure, for example, a massive chandelier. In this case, use for finishing a double layer of drywall. This will ensure a secure fit.
After evaluating all the possible advantages and minor, but important note of the shortcomings, you must decide on a specific type of drywall that will meet your exact needs.
So, in the repair of residential premises there are several types of drywall. They have different properties. That they should focus.
GCR - gypsum sheets, which are lined on both sides with a light and soft cardboard, fixed on the surface of the gypsum. The standard size of this sheet varies and ranges in length from 2,000 to 3,000 millimeters. The width usually remains the same - 1200 millimeters. Thickness - 12 or 9 millimeters. For residential premises it is recommended to resort to sheets with a thickness of not more than 9 millimetersto loosen the mass of ceiling structures.
It is widely used in the implementation of design and construction plans for the repair and installation of walls and partitions. At production the cardboard of gray shades is used.
GKLO - fireproof plasterboard sheets. This type of material, surprisingly, is not used in residential areas, but is widely distributed in industrial buildings, for finishing the duct and communication shaft.
GKLV - moisture resistant plasterboard sheets. They are used in rooms with high humidity, namely in the bathroom, kitchen, bathroom in the presence of exhaust ventilation and protection of the front surface with a waterproofing compound, waterproof paint, primer or ceramic tile finish. At production the cardboard of green tones is used.
GKLVO - gypsum plasterboard sheets of a mixed look, possessing high resistance to fire and humidity, combine all the characteristics of the previously mentioned species.
GVL - gypsum fiber sheets. At production are not fixed by a cardboard, as previous. Gypsum is strengthened with special high-quality cellulose waste paper. This type of sheet has high strength and heat resistance to fire and flame. It corresponds to the standard size of an ordinary sheet with a thickness of more than 6 or 10 millimeters. GVLV - gypsum-fiber moisture-resistant sheets.
Arched plasterboard sheets have the smallest thickness of the previously presented species - less than six millimeters. Used to reproduce various kinds of designs of different radii of curves and curved lines.
Facade drywall sheets covered with a layer of fiberglass, have a standard thickness of 12 millimeters. At production the cardboard of yellow shades is used.
Plasterboard sheets with insulation - modification material, in which polystyrene foam blocks are fixed to standard sheets with adhesive base. Insulated layers reach 60 millimeters, which makes it possible to significantly increase the insulation parameter of the wall.
Vinyl Coated Plaster Sheets - Another modification of our time, which increases its versatility. The GKL package has been expanded and today you can purchase a profile with decorated vinyl coating, which will allow you to assemble walls with a ready-made color solution.
With the help of such a plasterboard it is possible to make both single-level and multi-level ceilings.
The use of gypsum plasterboard to give a smooth surface to the walls and ceiling during the repair has long become widespread. Making complicated designs and decorating the ceiling became available with standard gypsum plasterboard. Such ceilings create interesting lighting solutions and become true works of art.
There are many options for the use of drywall forms, and for this it is not at all necessary to use the services of a builder or decorator. However, there are some conditions for the application of decorative forms on the ceiling cladding, which must be reviewed.
Rectangular ceiling plasterboard - This is a universal option, as it is suitable for all types of premises. He does an excellent job with his function - the correction of the shape of the room. For example, a rectangular ceiling is designed for narrow spaces, it will visually expand the walls.
Figured square ceiling made of plasterboard - This is a kind of rectangle, but it is found mainly in residential premises with relevant characteristics. With this type of room, a multi-level ceiling with a circle in the center of the structure is recommended.
Round shaped ceiling - the best option for highlighting the center of the dwelling, for example, where it is supposed to be a table, sofa or a place with the largest crowd of people.
Oval and curved ceiling from drywall visually increases the room, this type of ceiling is used for unobtrusive zoning of the space, regardless of its size and shape.
Ceiling abstract or geometric volumetric shape from drywall - it can be the shape of a flower or a geometric figure, it serves solely to give a decorative and extraordinary living space.
To construct a complex multi-level gypsum ceiling it is necessary to resort to a specialized computer program, it will calculate the recommended amount of material.
In this article, we consider a single-level, without a complex decor ceiling structure. Creating single-level ceilings does not imply the development of a complex project.
It will not be difficult to calculate it at home, the only nuance in this project that cannot be ignored is how the lighting devices will be located so that during installation the lamps do not coincide with the location of the supporting metal profiles.
For clarity and approximate calculation schemes let us take as an example a room measuring 3 by 6 meters:
- The first one in the priority list is to calculate the perimeter of the required room, in this case P = 6 + 6 + 3 + 3 = 18 meters. This is the required amount of ceiling profile guides. Be prudent and purchase a small supply in advance in case any difficulties arise during the installation. Do not forget that often the walls in residential premises are not equal to each other, in this case, focus on the value that is greater.
- Then it is necessary to calculate the required volume for the supporting ceiling profiles. This device is very important. For example, take a gap of 50 centimeters in length - the distance over which profiles will be fixed one after another. When a plasterboard sheet is fixed along the length of the room, the size of a standard sheet is 2500 mm, therefore, the borders fall on the supporting profile elements.
So, we substitute our parameters and do not forget that 6 m = 600 cm, therefore, 600: 50 = 12. Twelve pieces are the necessary amount of profile.
The second option is to place drywall sheets across the width of the room. In this case, the gap should be sixty centimeters long: 600: 60 = 10. Ten pieces is the recommended amount of profile.
- The next stage involves the calculation of the number of suspensions. The suspensions are fixed to the bearing profiles for a period of sixty centimeters long. For example, take a profile with a length of three meters. Accordingly, 300: 60 = 5. Five pieces - the required number of suspensions. The bearing ceiling profiles are at our disposal twelve, therefore, 12 * 5 = 60.
Note: the first and last suspensions are recommended to be fixed from the walls at a distance of 30 centimeters, and the remaining 60 centimeters from the adjacent ones.
- At the last stage, the necessary volume of crabs is calculated - the cruciform elements for fixing the frame structure. In our case, crabs are recommended to get 24 pieces, in other words, two times more than the profiles for the ceiling, calculated in the second stage.
Carefully write the drawings to make your work easier in the future.
Equipment and materials
An extremely important stage in the installation of the gypsum ceiling is, of course, the preparation of all the necessary materials and tools.
So, to work with drywall sheets are needed:
- guide profiles;
- ceiling profiles - do not give preference to a cheaper material, since the manufacture uses a thinner material, which can lead to deflection;
- quite important device - U-shaped suspension;
- profile connectors;
- fasteners - dowels, anchors;
- sheets of plasterboard - the ceiling is usually installed from sheets whose thickness reaches 9 millimeters, with larger size there is a risk of some difficulties (a more durable frame construction or alternative installation technology is required);
- metal and drywall screws;
- sealing tapes;
- materials for thermal and waterproofing;
- Decoration Materials;
- metal jigsaw and scissors, hammer;
- roulette, level - it is recommended to use two different levels (the first is up to a meter, the second is from two to 3 meters);
- construction knife;
- perforator, screwdriver;
Upon completion of the preparation of all the necessary tools and materials, after the development of the project, you can proceed to the most entertaining stage of all the work - the installation of drywall, as well as the finishing that follows.
You can hem the GKL yourself without resorting to the services of professionals, but it would be useful to ask someone to help you. The filing of this material should occur in several stages.
Frame and heat insulation
To begin with, it is required to measure all the corners of a dwelling using a tape measure or level. The height is determined from all the shortest angle. We mark it 5 centimeters from the ceiling, provided that the installation of lighting fixtures is not planned in the future, 9 centimeters - with the planned installation.
Using a level similar marks are indicated in other corners. Then along the walls are indicated marks at the same level as the first mark. It is necessary to collect all the marks in one line when using a long ruler or stretched lace - this is quite simple to do. Further on the walls are fixed guide profiles.
In a large room, it is advisable to pre-engage in strengthening the structure in the jointsto avoid the displacement of materials under their mass. Sheathe ceiling can be anything. For strengthening any dense materials will fit - plastic, plywood, which must be fixed on top of each joint and attached to the wall with dowels. After produce fixing the corner joints of the profiles.
Standard sheet of drywall - 120 to 250 centimeters, and therefore ceiling profile is recommended to fasten at a distance of 40 centimeters, as the sheets will be fixed at the borders and in the middle. Next, the ceiling is marked by lines parallel to each other at a distance of 40 centimeters.
В местах поперечного стыка нужно прикрутить перемычку из такого же материала, что и профиль. После чего устанавливают краба - крестообразный элемент для упрочнения каркасной конструкции. Next, determine the location of the suspension. The main suspension is set at 20 - 25 from the wall, the following - at a distance of 50 centimeters.
Anchor is used to fix the suspension; the usual dowel in this case is not suitable, as there is no thread and there is a possibility that the structure may not withstand. Ceiling profiles must be attached strictly to hangers.. Start with the corner of the room. And on this frame construction for the plasterboard ceiling is ready.
Special attention should be paid to the installation of thermal insulation. This is a simple and straightforward process that will require a little patience. The ceiling is insulated in the same way as the walls. After installing the frame construction empty areas, which were formed in the middle of the frame and the already existing floor slab, are filled with mineral insulants, the base of which is fiberglass. Then you can do the laying of electrical communication.
There is one important nuance - Built-in lighting can cause overheating, and it does not matter what type of lamps you have given your preference - energy saving, diode or incandescent lamps. Powerful overheating provokes a number of unpleasant consequences. Nearby wires can melt, after which at best there will be a short circuit, at worst a fire will occur.
If you remove a certain amount of insulation, it will solve the problem of overheating, but at the same time the thermal insulation function will be greatly reduced. In this case, it is recommended to abandon the installation of the built-in lighting system and opt for a chandelier or wall lamp.
The initial preparation of drywall pay special attention. He needs to rest for some time at room temperature.. Storage of drywall should occur exclusively in a horizontal position. At the initial stage, the chamfer is removed from the drywall. In other words, parts of the edges are cut at a 45 degree angle. This procedure is necessary to ensure the reliability of further finishing works. Today, many manufacturers produce sheets with finished edges.
Installation of plasterboard sheets start from the corners. They are fixed with screws at a distance of 15 centimeters. It is customary to place the screws on adjacent sheets in a checkerboard pattern. Sheets are attached slightly apart.. This means that the sheets do not fit on one line - this will allow drywall to gain a foothold more reliably. Installation of drywall finished, the final stage - finishing.
After the end of the main work on the installation of drywall construction, many are wondering what kind of finishing work will follow. There is a lot of variations on this topic - go painting, pokleit wallpaper, use decorative plaster or elements of polyurethane for decoration. The question is really complicated.
To begin with, the resulting plane must be made uniform - this will help to hide all sorts of seams, seams and joints of sheets. In addition, if there is a question about painting or finishing with thin decorative plaster, you need to level the ceiling in any case.
Water emulsion and water dispersion paints are the most popular materials for ceiling finishing works.
Water emulsion is a paint consisting of small drops of oil, which are dissolved in water. Water dispersion paint is a combination of small particles of different polymers, it is resistant to washing and does not have a strong odor. Both are well suited for painting plasterboard surfaces., besides, they have one feature - it is possible to choose a matte base. This is true for the case when there are small errors on the ceiling, which remain after the putty. It will disguise them perfectly.
Paint on the basis of gloss, on the contrary, exposes all the roughness and imperfections parade. Its use is appropriate only when the quality of the coating is ideal, for example, pre-pasted with wallpaper. On ceilings, oil based paint is not recommended.
Wallpapering involves two options for subsequent events - with or without painting. The choice of shade and color is what you need to be careful and attentive with. An overly dark shade creates an atmosphere of a low ceiling pressing on you, and a light shade visually increases the height of the living room. Both options require you to take into account the existing relief pattern on the wallpaper. It makes no sense to glue embossed wallpaper so that they are lost under the impressive layers of paint.
It is worth mentioning this type of finishes, like liquid wallpaper. This is quite often used material for finishing work, which perfectly fits on drywall. In composition, they are similar to thick paint, to which decorative filler has been added.
The choice of plaster for the ceiling is yours, the only thing that is not recommended is to use decorative plaster on a watery basis. Gypsum sheet does not tolerate moisture, from which it begins to swell, loses its shape and the whole structure is deformed. In rooms with high humidity, decorative acrylic-based plaster is used. It perfectly copes with the effects of moisture and at the same time retains its properties.
The size of the filler plaster is divided into several types:
- low-impact - a filler up to 1 millimeter;
- srednefurnaturnaya - a filler up to 1.5 millimeters;
- large - a filler from 3 to 5 millimeters;
- fine textured - filler is less than 1 millimeter.
When choosing a plaster, please note that thin fillers do not mask the uneven surface. Prefer more dense fillers.
Tile - another attractive option for finishing plasterboard ceiling. But here there is one condition - it is necessary to pre-treat the entire surface of the gypsum ceiling with a primer. Ignoring this stage, the tile will not last long and will fall off at any moment.
Ceiling products are rarely trimmed with ceramic tiles, In this case, a material such as polyurethane or polystyrene is used.. Such materials stick easier and faster.
There are a lot of options on the topic of decorating the drywall surface with your own hands, the choice depends on the characteristics of the living space and plans for the design of the entire room. Our step-by-step instruction will certainly help you to mount the drywall and trim the ceiling.
Do not neglect the steps and materials for preparing the surface for future finishing, for example, leveling the surface with putty.
Tips and tricks
Sooner or later, when working with drywall sheets, you will encounter a situation where the sheet will need to be cut to size. To do this, use a tape measure, ruler and a sharp construction knife, clerical, too, will do. Having made the markup, slowly cut the cardboard layer with a knife, trying to hook the plaster filler. Then put the sheet on the table border and with a sharp movement break the plaster filler to the bottom cardboard layer.
Preparatory work with drywall is not limited to only cutting it to the required size. If you want to get a flat surface, the joints and seams need to be masked after installation on the metal frame structure. The technology of chamfering along the edges of the gypsum board is used for this. The dimensions of the chamfers are directly dependent on the selected method, which will be putty plasterboard sheets.
If you choose a method using reinforcing tape, then the chamfers are removed at a 45-degree angle. When using a putty with self-adhesive serpianka it is necessary to chamfer at a 25-degree angle, which is already two-thirds of the density of the sheet. For the production of this process, you need to purchase a specialized plane on the edge.